Wind Power Generation in the UK: The Ultimate Guide
Whilst complaining about the wet and windy weather is an almost daily topic of conversation for us Brits, our endlessly dodgy climate does have one benefit. As the windiest country in Europe, we are perfectly placed to generate renewable electricity from wind, and we are slowly beginning to take advantage of this entirely clean and endless source of energy.
Wind power generation has grown fairly rapidly in the past decade and the UK is now the sixth largest wind power producer in the world after China, the USA, Germany, India and Spain.
In 2017, 15% of the UK’s entire electricity was generated from wind power, enough to power 12.7 million homes across the country. This makes wind our primary source of renewable energy in Britain at the present time. In fact, we now generate twice as much energy from wind power as we do from coal - great news for the future of the country and our planet.
How is Wind Power Generated?
Wind energy actually begins with the sun and is essentially a form of solar energy. The sun heats the surface of the earth unevenly because of the earth’s irregular surfaces of mountains, hills, oceans and other terrain. This uneven heating of the earth creates areas of warm air that rises up and cold air that sinks and moves into its place. This movement of air and change in air pressure causes wind to form. The wind’s natural energy can then be turned into electricity using ‘wind turbines’ that are grouped together in ‘wind farms’, both inland and off the coast of the UK.
To turn the wind’s energy into electricity requires the use of wind turbines placed in windy areas of open land or in shallow water surrounding the coast of the UK. Wind turbines are huge structures, typically around 150 metres tall, topped with two or three rotating blades. The wind’s power and kinetic energy cause the blades to spin which powers a generator that converts the movement (kinetic energy) into electricity. Wind turbine blades typically span 20 to 80 metres and turn 13 to 20 times per minute depending on the strength of the wind, the size and type of turbine.
At the time of writing, there are currently 7,054 onshore wind turbines in operation across the UK plus a further 1,832 located offshore. This amounts to a total maximum capacity of over 19,800 megawatts of electricity and equated to 15% of Britain's total electricity generation in 2017. This swelled further in the final three months of 2017 when a total of 18.5% of our total electricity was generated by wind power.
These numbers are still below most other fossil fuel energies but are increasing all the time as the technology advances and new wind farms pop up across the country.
In the UK, our tallest wind turbines are located off the coast of Liverpool at the Burbo Bank Offshore Wind Farm. Standing at 195 metres, they are taller than the Blackpool Tower and the Gherkin skyscraper in London. With 80 metre long blades, each turbine has a capacity of 8 megawatts which is enough to power a home for 29 hours with just a single rotation.
As the wind is variable throughout the day, so is the amount of times the blades turn meaning the amount of power generated increases and decreases constantly. Because of this, wind turbines are often grouped together in ‘wind farms’ in order to both maximise output and generate a steady supply of energy throughout the day.
Wind turbines are often grouped together in wind farms in order to multiply the amount of energy that can be generated in any one location. Wind farms are either located ‘onshore’ in areas of open land, or ‘offshore’ positioned off the coast in areas of shallow water and high levels of wind.
Energy produced from onshore wind farms is currently the leading producer of the two, contributing 8.5% of the UK’s total electricity output. In addition, offshore wind farms contribute 6.2% of the UK’s electricity. Together they are able to power 12.7 million UK homes and this is expected to increase as investment continues in new wind farms around Britain.
Britain’s Onshore Wind Farms
At the current time, the majority of wind power generation in the UK comes from wind farms based inland or ‘onshore’. Traditionally, wind farms were installed onshore because they were cheaper to build and maintain. They have to endure less wear and tear compared to turbines located in offshore wind farms. The downside however, is that wind is less reliable and more irregular onshore, meaning they typically generate less energy compared to those located off the coast.
Whitelee Wind Farm in Eaglesham, Glasgow is currently the largest onshore wind farm currently operating in Scotland, and the UK overall. Whitelee Wind Farm has 215 wind turbines which can generate 539 megawatts of electricity when running at peak capacity. This output is enough to power around 300,000 homes in Scotland at any one time.
In Wales, the Pen y Cymoedd Wind Farm opened in 2017 with 76 turbines and a capacity of 228 megawatts - enough to power 188,000 Welsh homes and save 300,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions.
In England, Little Cheyne Court in Kent, has 26 wind turbines with a peak output of 59.8 megawatts. Little Cheyne Court generates enough electricity to power 33,000 homes in England per year.
Northern Ireland’s main onshore wind farm is Slieve Rushen Wind Farm. Slieve Rushen has a modest 18 turbines and total capacity of 54 megawatts that can power 30,000 homes in Northern Ireland.
Britain’s Offshore Wind Farms
Since 2008, the UK has been the leading offshore wind power-generating country in the world. Whilst offshore wind farms are more expensive to install, they are able to generate more power than onshore farms due to the increased wind intensity and consistency at sea. Offshore farms also remove issues that often cause problems onshore such as noise pollution and visual interference for local residents.
The London Array is Britain’s, and the world’s, largest offshore wind farm with 175 wind turbines spread over 38 square miles (100km). Located 20 km off the coast of Kent, it generates 630 megawatts of electricity, enough to power almost 500,000 households across London and the South East whilst also reducing CO2 emissions by 925,000 tonnes per year.
Off the coast of Scotland is Robin Rigg Wind Farm in Solway Firth which has 58 wind turbines and a capacity of 180 megawatts. It currently powers 120,000 Scottish homes and offsets 235,000 tonnes of CO2 every year that would be released into the atmosphere if it weren’t for wind energy.
In Wales, there is the Gwynt y Môr Wind Farm with 160 turbines that can generate 576 megawatts of electricity. Located in the Irish Sea off the north coast of Wales, Gwynt y Môr Wind Farm has the ability to power 400,000 households in Wales and cuts CO2 emissions by 1.7 million tonnes per year.
|% of UK’s total electricity||Number of homes powered per year||Planned investment for next four years|
|15%||16 million||£17.5 billion|
|Number of UK wind turbines||Number of UK windfarms||Tonnes of CO2 saved annually|
|10,420 units||2,450 sites||26 million|
Five Reasons To Love Wind Power
Wind power is a wonderful source of renewable energy and has numerous benefits. Wind power will never run out, it’s clean, cheap to produce and we have more than enough wind to meet the entire UK’s electricity needs many times over - once the infrastructure is in place. The main advantages of wind power are as follows.
1. It’s Eco-friendly and Sustainable
Wind power is an entirely ‘clean’ source of energy and doesn’t cause any pollution or greenhouse gasses. It also contributes massively to reducing CO2 emissions compared to fossil-fuel energies - helping the world to reverse climate change in a small, but important way.
Unlike fossil fuels, wind will never run out as it is continually being produced by the sun. For as long as the sun is shining, wind will be produced and can be harnessed for energy. As Europe’s windiest country, we have an abundance of wind that can generate large amounts of sustainable energy and the more we use it, the more it will reduce CO2 emissions and have a positive impact on the future of our planet.
2. It’s Cheap to Generate
Wind power is one of the most cost-effective sources of renewable energy around.
Whilst installing the infrastructure is fairly costly, once it’s up and running, it’s a low cost source of energy to generate. The only real costs post-installation is maintenance of the wind turbines.
According to Bulb Energy, wind energy in 2017 cost the same to generate as conventional gas and is far cheaper than nuclear energy. Offshore wind power in particular has reduced in price by nearly 50% since 2015 and by 2020 wind power will be cheaper than any other type of power generation.
All of this means more and more consumers have access to and can afford green energy and are still able to benefit from reduced bills compared to fossil fuels.
“Once the renewable infrastructure is built, the fuel is free forever. Unlike carbon-based fuels, the wind and the sun and the earth itself provide fuel that is free, in amounts that are effectively limitless.”
3. Creation of Wind Power Jobs
Wind power has economic benefits too in creating thousands of wind farm jobs and with the companies manufacturing the turbines. With all the investment in wind power in recent years, the number of wind power jobs have been growing to manage, construct and maintain wind farms and wind power infrastructure. Jobs and internships in roles such as wind turbine technicians, engineers, designers, analysts and project managers are just some of the roles that are in increasing demand thanks to wind power.
In the UK, 42,000 people were employed in the wind power sector between 2015 - 2016. This represented one third of the total 126,000 jobs across all renewable energy sectors during the same period and makes wind power the clear leader in renewable energy employment in the UK. Employment in the renewable industry is predicted to create around 40,000 jobs by 2020. If wind power jobs continue to contribute one third of those 40,000 positions, this will likely mean the creation of around 13,000 new wind power jobs by 2020. This would take total wind power employment in the UK to around 55,000.
Worldwide, wind power is also a huge employer with 1.1 million people employed in the wind power sector out of a total 9.8 million employed across all renewable energies. However, jobs in solar power represent the main source of employment globally, with 3.1 million jobs.
4. Reduces Reliance on Imported Energy
All of this homegrown energy production also reduces our reliance on energy imports from abroad. This has the benefit of increased security during times of reduced supply of energy sourced from abroad. It also gives the UK better control over energy prices compared to the fluctuating prices of foreign energy that we cannot control.
5. It’s an Efficient use of Space
Wind farms may need plenty of space in between each turbine to prevent turbulence, but the land in between can often been utilised for agricultural purposes. This means landowners and agricultural farmers can install their own wind turbines with minimal disturbance to the land, or rent the land to wind farm companies.
Whilst onshore wind farms may cause aesthetic interference to local residents, the actual amount of land required is fairly minimal. Likewise, offshore wind farms take up relatively small amounts of space and do not interfere with shipping lanes or important waterways. They are only restricted by the varying depths of the water around Britain’s coast.
Three Disadvantages of Wind Power
Whilst we are big advocates of wind power and renewable energy sources in general, wind-powered electricity is still a fairly new innovation and has its flaws. The disadvantages of wind power include:
1. It’s Inconsistent and Unreliable
Wind power is of course governed by mother nature and is therefore somewhat inconsistent and unreliable. Onshore wind farms are particularly inconsistent due to irregular wind patterns on land. In the UK we are lucky to receive a high amount of wind overall, but in other countries wind is far more scarce and therefore less viable as a form of renewable energy.
Although we can maximise wind power generation in the UK by installing wind farms offshore where wind is more consistent, the infrastructure involved is more expensive to install and maintain due to the logistics of accessing and working with the offshore sites. And whilst we can generate a decent amount of wind energy in the UK, the variable output means it is difficult to rely on wind to power our electricity 100% of the time.
2. High Initial Investment
To plan and implement a new wind farm remains an expensive investment and as such many projects in the past have relied on government funding and subsidies. Installing offshore wind farms is particularly costly due to the logistical issues of installing wind turbines in water. The London Array Wind Farm for example cost £1.8 billion to plan and construct. That’s a lot of energy generation needed to recoup the costs.
3. Interference for Local Residents
Depending on where you live in the UK, one drawback to some is the visual interference of wind turbines. Wind farms located onshore are often in areas of beautiful countryside which for some local residents obstruct their views. Homeowners living close to wind farms also complain of the noise they generate. Whilst these issues may only affect a small percentage of the British public, they cannot be dismissed and have caused anger in the past for sections of the British population.
Scotland Are Leading the Way in Wind Power
Within the UK, it’s the innovative Scots who have embraced wind power the most. In 2017, wind farms including Whitelee Wind Farm and many others generated enough electricity to power 3 million homes in Scotland within just six months. That’s a huge 6.6 million megawatt hours of electricity sent to the National Grid.
The world’s most powerful turbine has also recently been installed off the coast of Aberdeen. The first of 11, it will form part of Scotland’s largest offshore wind farm - the Aberdeen Bay Wind Farm. The developers claim that it will power 70% of Aberdeen’s homes and that a single rotation of its huge 80 metre length propellers can power a home for an entire day. Whilst the US President Donald Trump objected to the plans - claiming it would be an eyesore for his nearby golf club, he is known for making overblown complaints with little merit. In the end, it was successfully installed and will begin powering Aberdeen’s homes imminently.
The Scottish government also recently claimed that 25% of Europe’s entire offshore wind resources are based in Scotland and they have created over 58,000 jobs in the renewable energy sector. In addition, the government is aiming for 100% of their electricity supply to come from renewable sources by the year 2020.
Scotland is also paving the way with renewable energy on the whole, with investments in tidal energy also helping boost their green credentials. Not only are they tackling climate change and generating vast amounts of renewable energy, they are also creating jobs and bringing in major investment to the industry. Whilst England, Wales and Northern Ireland are doing their part, they’ll need to increase their investment and commitment to the green energy sector to catch up with Scotland.
The Future of Wind Power in the UK
In recent years, generation and usage of wind-powered energy has grown quickly and does not seem set to slow down anytime soon. New investment into wind power is continuing, with the ambitious ‘Hornsea Project One’ project set to be the world’s largest offshore wind farm - penned for completion in 2020. Located 75 miles off the Yorkshire coast, Hornsea Project One will be able to supply wind-powered energy to over 1 million homes.
Once completed, work will follow on ‘Hornsea Project Two’ which will expand on the first project - powering up to 1.6 million homes in the UK. ‘Hornsea Project Three’ is set to follow thereafter.
These are just some of the UK’s planned wind energy infrastructure improvements, but shows Britain is serious about upping its wind power generation in the coming years. Not only is this a great sign for the environment and increasing access to green energy to consumers, this investment will also create new jobs in the renewable sector.
"The offshore wind sector alone will invest £17.5bn in the UK up to 2021 and thousands of new jobs in British businesses will be created.”
Which UK Suppliers Provide Energy from Wind Power?
Wind power is a growing source of renewable energy and there are plenty of suppliers in the UK offering competitively priced electricity generated by the wind.